When it comes to our vehicle maintenance, some of us have a few questions relating to brake fluid. Can I mix different brake fluids? And can I top up my brake fluid? How do you top up your brake fluid? We answer these questions in our discussion.
“DOT 4 and DOT 5.1 are both glycol-based brake fluids and are used widely in the automotive and cycle industry. They are controlled by standards set out by the Department of Transportation (DOT) – hence the name.
The main difference between these two brake fluids is in their boiling points. Part of the standards that need to be met by the manufacturers of DOT fluids are the minimum dry and wet boiling points. These are the minimum temperatures that the brake fluid must perform at before the brake fluid starts to boil, which can lead to complete brake failure.
Let’s take a look at the minimum boiling temperatures of DOT brake fluid as specified by the Department of Transportation.
Remember, these are only the minimum standards. Brake fluid manufacturers can and often do improve on these figures and it is possible to find DOT 4 brake fluid with a higher boiling point than some DOT 5.1 fluids on the market.
Since DOT 4 and 5.1 are both glycol-based brake fluids they are compatible with each other, which means they can be readily mixed without harming your brake system. It is important never to mistake DOT 5.1 (glycol-based) with DOT 5 which is silicone-based and should never be mixed with any other DOT fluid.
So just which brake fluids can you mix without causing harm to your brake system? Let’s take a look at the chart below.
Here you can see that silicone-based DOT 5 is the odd one out and is not compatible with any other DOT brake fluid. By mixing DOT 3, 4 and 5.1 brake fluids, assuming it is fresh fluid, the worst thing that can happen is a drop in the boiling point of the whole fluid.
Some brake manufacturers, such as Hayes and Formula, pre-fill their brakes with DOT 4 brake fluid from the factory. Others including Avid and Hope, choose to use DOT 5.1 in their brakes. Many riders with DOT 4 in their brakes will opt to bleed with DOT 5.1 to benefit from the higher boiling point and improved heat resistance.”
The answer to this question is – yes. You can top up your brake fluid. Here’s how.
“Brake fluid creates pressure in the brake lines to help stop a car when the brake pedal is pressed. Maintain your brake fluid levels to stay safe.
Your car’s brake system is operated by hydraulic pressure — fluid is used in constricted lines to cause movement on the other end.
Hydraulic brake systems have been used for decades. They are reliable, need minimal maintenance, and most problems can be diagnosed and repaired easily.
Brake fluid is hygroscopic, meaning that it absorbs water. This hygroscopic brake fluid prevents interior corrosion of metal lines and seizing of moving parts.
If the brake fluid is contaminated with water, it should be changed with clean fluid from a fresh bottle. If moisture-saturated brake fluid is left in the brake system for too long, damage can occur including:
If the brake system requires a part to be replaced such as a brake hose or a calliper, brake fluid may leak out and the reservoir level may become low.
If your brake fluid is low or if you’ve performed a brake repair recently, you need to top up the fluid in the reservoir.
Step 1: Locate the brake fluid reservoir. The brake fluid reservoir is located in the engine compartment and is mounted on the brake booster against the firewall. The brake fluid reservoir is opaque or white in colour.
Step 2: Check the brake fluid level. The fluid reservoir has markings on the side like “FULL” and “LOW”. Use the markings to identify the fluid level inside the reservoir.
Step 3: Top up the brake fluid. Add the brake fluid to the reservoir so that the level reaches the “FULL” marking. Don’t overfill as it could push out past the cap under pressure.Match the brake fluid you need with the fluid type mentioned on the brake fluid reservoir cap. Always use a new, unopened container of brake fluid to fill the reservoir.
New brake fluid is a honey-brown colour. If your brake fluid is dark like the colour of used engine oil or a noticeably darker colour than new fluid, or if there is a gritty consistency when you rub it between your fingers, you need to change the brake fluid in your car.
Step 1: Lift and secure your vehicle. Locate a secure jack point on your car. Consult your owner’s manual to see what types of jacks you can use on your car. Jack up your car until you are able to reach the back of the wheel hub assembly. Place an axle stand under the frame, wheel hub or axle assembly at the lifted corner for safety. If the jack slips, the axle stand will protect you from injury while you are working underneath your car.
Step 2: Remove the wheel. Use the lug nut wrench to remove the lug nuts of the wheel. It is easier to access the brake bleeder screw with the wheel removed.
Step 3: Open the bleeder screw. The bleeder screw is a hex screw with a hole in the middle. Locate the bleeder screw on the back of the wheel knuckle or on the brake calliper and loosen it. Turn the bleeder screw counter-clockwise a half-turn to loosen it. Keep backing the bleeder screw off a half-turn at a time until you see drops of brake fluid come from the end.
Step 4: Install the brake bleeder hose. Fit the brake bleeder hose onto the bleeder screw.
Step 5: Top up the brake fluid. Use clean brake fluid of the same type as noted on the reservoir lid to top up the brake fluid.Throughout the process, top up the brake fluid after pressing the brake pedal every 5-7 presses.
Step 6: Pump the brakes. Pump the brakes five times, all the way to the floor. Check the colour of the brake fluid in the brake bleeder hose. If the fluid is still dirty, pump the brakes 5 more times. Top up the brake fluid in the reservoir after every interval of pumping the brakes. The brake fluid change is complete when the fluid looks new in the brake bleeder hose.
Step 7: Reassemble the wheel area. Remove the brake bleeder hose. Tighten the bleeder screw with your wrench. Put the wheel back on and tighten it with the lug nut wrench. Remove the axle stand from under your vehicle and lower your car to the ground.
Step 8: Repeat the procedure for all four wheels. After flushing all four lines with clean fluid, the fluid in your whole brake system will be new and the fluid in your reservoir will be clean and new as well.
Step 9: Pump your brake pedal. With everything re-assembled, pump the brake pedal firmly 5 times. The first time you pump the pedal, it may sink all the way to the floor. It can be surprising, but the pedal will firm up in the next few presses.
Step 10: Road test your car. Put your car in drive with your foot firmly on the brake pedal.
Drive slowly around the block, testing the brakes regularly to make sure they respond.
Step 11: Check your car for leaks. Pop the hood open and check for brake fluid leaks by the reservoir. Look below the car and check for fluid leaks at each wheel.
Replace your vehicle’s brake fluid every two to three years in order to maintain the performance of your brakes. Ensure that the brake fluid is at the proper level, always. It is relatively simple to replenish the brake fluid on your own. Follow the recommendations in the owner’s manual to determine the correct procedure and brake fluid for your car. If you find that you still have to pump the brakes for it to work, get a certified mechanic to inspect your brake system. Ask a professional technician to check your brakes if you notice any signs of leaking brake fluid.”
Related Tags: Brake Repair Brake Specialist
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